Screening Tests in Details 2D Echo Cardiography (Colour Doppler of Heart) It is done to obtain complete evaluation of the pelvic area in females more. 2D Echo was found to have maximum accuracy. i.e. 88%. Rajarajeshwari Medical College And Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka,. India Females = g/ m2 Diagnostic validity tests (Specificity and sensitivity) and Chi –. results Dr. Shrinidhi I.S is a Consultant Orthopedist at Bangalore. on numerous health conditions that are related to the reproductive system in females. . A 2D echocardiogram is a diagnostic test that provides excellent and clear.
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There is substantial increase in the coincidence of Type2 Diabetes mellitus and cardiomyopathy. Cardiomyopathy can occur in patients who have no evidence of large vessel disease or abnormalities. The early and commonest hemodynamic complication of diabetic cardiomyopathy is diastolic dysfunction. So the present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of diastolic dysfunction in diabetic patients and to assess the correlation of diastolic dysfunction with HbA1c l evels. A total of Diabetic patients with minimum 5 years duration were selected from Chigateri hospital and Bapuji hospital, were subjected to undergo echocardiography and HbA1c lev el.
Left ventricle diastolic dysfunction was observed in 58 patients out of Of which 54 Our finding indicates that myocardial damage in diabetic patient affects diastolic dysfunction before systolic dysfunction. Diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterized by an early diastolic dysfunction and later systolic dysfunction. HbA1c can be a very good indicator of long term prognosis.
Strong correlation exists between diastolic dysfunction and HbA1c lev els. I present a case of a 44 year old diabetic male patient who came with right low er zone pneumonia with mild pleural effusion, in sepsis. A 44 year old male patient came to our institution with complaints of cough, breathlessness, decrease appetite and loss of weight since one month, underwent routine lab investigations, radiological examination.
Sputum was positive for acid fast bacilli and pseudomonas aeruginosa organisms. He was started on Anti Tubercular Treatment and antibiotics. On 10th day of admission patient had one episode of haemoptysis.
So a Computed Tomography CT scan of thorax plain and with contrast was done and bronchoscopy was planned. The same day evening, patient had an episode of massive haemoptysis and patient collapsed and could not be resuscitated. Haemoptysis is the presenting feature and is often massive and fatal if untreated. There is progressive destruction and replacement of the elastic fibres of the pulmonary artery from without inward by granulation tissue.
This granulation tissue destroys the elastic fibres of the artery in a circumscribed area resulting in Aneurysmal formation.
Cardiovascular involvement is common in HIV reactive patients although are clinically quiescent. Echocardiography in HIV reactive patients is important tool in recognising these cardiac abnormalities. The study was conducted in HIV reactive patients attending antiretroviral therapy centre and wards of the hospital. Echocardiography was done using GE Vivid 3 Milwaukee using 2.
Out of patients, echocardiographic involvement was shown in 62 Same was true with patients having pericardial effusion and dilated cardiomyopathy. Pulmonary hypertension was seen in 5. The prevalence of echocardiographic manifestations in HIV reactive patients was quiet high.
High index of clinical suspicion of cardiac involvement and its recognition in HIV patients at all stages help in early diagnosis and treatment which in turn will decrease morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of myocardial ischaemia at an early stage in the emergency department is often difficult. A recently proposed biomarker, heart fatty acid binding protein H-FABP has been found to appear in the circulation superior to that of cardiac troponins in the early hours of acute coronary syndrome.
A total of 61 patients who presented with features suggestive of myocardial ischemia such as chest pain, lower jaw pain, left arm pain etc, and who presented with in the first 6 hours of symptom onset were included. The commonest age group was years Majority of the patients History of hypertension and diabetes w as present in Personal history of alcohol consumption and smoking was noted in Of the 57 patients with raised H-FABP levels, 54 had raised troponin I levels and 3 had normal troponin I yielding to a sensitivity of H-FABP can be used as a sensitive biomarker for myocardial injury in the early stag A comparative study of epicardial fat thickness and its association with abdominal visceral fat thickness in obese and non-obese type 2 diabetes subjects M Mahesh, S Jain JSS Medical College, Mysore Introduction: The concept of visceral fat and its role in various metabolic disorders is existing for the last one and a half decades.
There is a wide body of literature on various aspects of visceral fat. Epicardial fat is also visceral fat, but this not been as extensively studied as abdominal visceral fat. However there is divergent opinion also regarding this topic. This study w as therefore taken up.
Anthropometric measurements like weight, height, BMI were recorded and patient underwent transthoracic echocardiography and Ultrasound abdomen. The mean value among non-obese Diabetic patients was 5. The EFT in one morbidly obese patient was The mean EFT among non-obese Diabetics was 5.
The difference is found to be statistically significant with a p value of Conclusion: The EFT and abdominal VAT were significantly correlated among obese diabetics while not significantly correlated among non-obese diabetics, suggesting obesity is an independent risk factor for visceral adiposity.
EFT can be used as an independent measure to assess visceral fat among obese diabetic s. To compare clinical characteristics, treatment and utilization of evidence-based medicines at discharge from hospital in acute coronary syndrome ACS patients with or without diabetes at tertiary care cardiac cent re in India. We performed prospective observational study of consecutive patients discharged alive after management of ACS.
Demographic details, comorbid conditions and risk factors, physical and biochemical parameters and their management are reported. Descriptiv e statistics are reported. We enrolled patients diabetes 28 with mean age Diabetic patients with ACS have greater prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors as compared to non-diabetic patients. More diabetic patients undergo CABG surgery. They receive lesser dual antiplatelets and beta blocker therapies.
Thermal termination of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia: PSVT refers to a clinical syndrome characterized by a rapid, regular and mostly narrow tachycardia with abrupt onset and termination.
Recurrent episodes can result in significantly decreased quality of life and rarely life threatening. Concept of dual pathways slow and fast explains the mechanism. Because of known influence of autonomic tone on AV nodal conduction, maneuvers that increase vagal tone such as valsalva and Muller maneuvers, gagging, carotid sinus massage and ice water stimulation of face have been used to terminate arrhythmia mostly acting on slow pathway.
No drug was administered and no vagal provocative manoeuvre was initiated. ECG was continuously monitored. Out of 10 cases with PSVT, 5 responded to ice cube pressure in 20 seconds. One more case responded with another attempt started immediately after the first effort.
Responders included 4 females and 2 males. There was no immediate recurrence of PSVT and there w as no untoward symptom. Ice cube pressure on carotid sinus is hitherto undescribed method of termination of PSVT. Efficacy is also good. Early clinical diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction can be made by proper history taking. However many times the symptoms may be atypical and misleading resulting in missing the diagnosis when it is most needed. Chest pain, chest discomfort, autonomic symptoms may not be evident.
Certain atypical symptoms have been described and with clinical high index of suspicion-acute MI can be suspected and then diagnosed. Besides typical and atypical symptoms described in history taking of AMI certain unreported or sparsely reported symptoms may be helpful if high index of suspicion is kept in mind. It is helpful in early diagnosis and starting life saving treatment. Dysnatremia is a commonly encountered electrolyte abnormality among critically ill patients.
Yet it is one of the most easily correctable parameter. In this study the objectiv e is To measure the serum sodium levels at the time of admission and to estimate the proportion of Dysnatremia in heart failure patients To correlate between serums sodium levels with left ventricular ejection fraction.
Detailed history, clinical examination and required investigations were carried out. The data w as entered in master sheet and analysed statistically. In our study prevalence of Dysnatremia in acute decompensate heart failure was high, hyponatremia was present in patients with both preserved and decreased EF, hyponatremia was present in older patients with decreased EF.
Thus sodium levels within the reference range may carry differential information on prognosis; further studies are needed in this regard. Coronary artery disease CAD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The gold standard for its diagnosis is coronary angiography which carries with it a great deal of procedural risk and cost factor.
Obesity is the most common risk factor for CAD, screened with traditional anthropometric indices, like BMI, hip waist ratio which vary with immediate lifestyle, dietary habits, respiration. New anthropometric indices of neck circumference NC and leg length LL attempted to overcome these shortcomings. The study was aimed at testing the correlation of NC and LL with the severity of CAD as evidenced by severity of degree of stenosis of coronaries during coronary angiographic.
It was a cross sectional study conducted over 45 days at KIMS, Hubballi, with a sample size of 48 patients. Only proximal 8 coronaries were scored.
NC and LL was measured using a measuring tape calibrated to nearest centimetr e. Of 48, 25 subjects were males and 23 were females. Mean NC was Mean LL was NC can be considered as an independent anthropometric index for prediction of CAD in apparently healthy individuals, where increased NC will help guide the health care providers with appropriate, preventive measures, whereas LL did not prove to be an effective anthropometric index for prediction of coronary artery disease in apparently healthy individuals.
Assessment of endothelial function, thus, can provide valuable insight into pre-intrusive phase of atherosclerosis and can be used as an early marker of future Atherosclerotic disease.
Flow mediated dilation FMD is known to depend on ability of the endothelium to release NO in response to shear stress and can be used reliably as an estimate of endothelial function in v arious disease states Material: Brachial artery assessment was performed in both cases and control. Flow mediated dilation was calculated as percentage increase in brachial artery diameter in response to increase in brachial ar tery flow. The prevalence of endothelial dysfunction did not increase significantly with duration of diabetes.
Other risk factors associated with endothelial dysfunction were hypertension, family history of diabetes and smoking. Pulmonary AV malformation is a rare condition in which there is abnormal connection between pulmonary arteries and veins. Symptoms reflect the consequence of right to left shunt. Right to left shunt produce cyanosis but with rare exception not to cause significant hemodynamic burden.
Patients may present with hypoxia as unoxygenated blood shunts to the systemic circulation. Shunting of micro emboli bypasses the filtration function of the lungs and may sometimes result in dev elopment of TIAs, CVA or a brain abscess. A 52 year old female admitted with complaints of grade2 breathlessness, epigastric pain. No history of epistaxis, cough, cyanosis, hemoptysis, malena, hematuria, headache, seizures and weakness of limbs.
No such complaints in any member of her family. Chest X-Ray showed bilateral elongated tortuous opacities in middle and lower lobes. Percutaneous catheterisation and embolisation of multiple pulmonary AV fistulas done with CERA vascular plugs sizes of 12 and 14 on left side and size 8 on right side. Though blood flow via the fistula increases, flow through the remainder of lung reciprocally decreases. This accounts for the normal cardiac output. Isolated multiple PAVMs are rare.
This patient had no features of HHT. As open surgery is associated with peri and post-operative morbidity and mortality, Percutaneous embolisation is safe and effective in such cases. It occurs on the abdomen and the breasts of pregnant women, on the shoulders of body - builders, in adolescents undergoing their growth spurt, and in individuals who are overweight.
The ultrasound machines are connected to large overhead TV screens so that you can watch the examination in comfort. Types of scans I. Your urine bladder to be filled to perform this scan through abdomen approach. The aims of this scan is to confirm the pregnancy, determine the number of embryos present and whether the pregnancy is progressing normally inside the uterus.
This scan is useful for women who are experiencing pain or bleeding in the pregnancy and those who have had previous miscarriages or ectopic pregnancies. The scan is usually performed transabdominally, but in a few cases it may be necessary to do the examination transvaginally. During the scan, each part of the fetal body is examined. Special attention is paid to the brain, face, spine, heart, stomach, bowel, kidneys and limbs.
If any abnormalities are detected the significance of the findings will be discussed and the couple will be given the opportunity to have further counselling with experts. All the fetal structures may not be visualized at the time of scan due to technical factors, biological factors, position of the baby and liquor volume in the uterus.
Minor anomalies may be missed because of the subtle findings. It is recommended for women with family history of congenital heart abnormalities, those with diabetes mellitus and for those pregnancies as result of IVF. The scan is done between 22 weeks weeks for better assessment of structures. This study aims to determine the growth and health of the fetus.
As per government order, gender detection and disclosure of the fetus sex is strictly prohibited in our centre. Non Pregnancy scans Ultrasound scan can be done for any organ of the body, A few commonly performed studies are as follows: Sonofistulogram for perianal fistulas etc. Studies have shown that ultrasound is not hazardous. As such there are no harmful side effects, since ultrasound does not use any radiation.
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